Topics for Conference sessions are listed below
Algae, like corn, soybeans, sugar cane, Jatropha, and other plants, use photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy. They store this energy in the form of oils, carbohydrates, and proteins. Algae are among the most photosynthetically efficient plants on Earth. Algae for biofuels have been studied for many years to produce hydrogen, methane, vegetable oils (for biodiesel), hydrocarbons, and ethanol. Algae can be used to produce biofuel, called algae fuel, algal fuel, or even third generation biofuel.
The global algae biofuel market is expected to reach USD 10.73 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. In 2010, the U.S. based Solazyme, Inc. delivered over 36,000 litres of 100% algae-derived biofuel to the U.S. Navy, for testing and certification purpose, which was key step towards product commercialization.
The major players in the algae biofuel industry include Algenol, Blue Marble Production, Solazyme Inc., Sapphire Energy, Culture Biosystems, Origin Oils Inc., Proviron, Genifuels, Algae Systems, Solix Biofuels, Algae Production Systems and Reliance Life Sciences.
Lignocellulosic biomasses are the most abundant renewable resources on Earth. The use of lignocellulosic materials for second-generation ethanol production would minimize the conflict between land use for food (and feed) and energy production. The process for cellulosic ethanol production by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation consists of pretreatments exposing plant cell wall polysaccharides, production of reducing sugars with a (hemi) cellulolytic enzyme cocktail, and fermentation of the sugars with ethanologenic microorganisms. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) and consolidate bioprocess (CBP) have been studied as cost-effective integrated processes for bioethanol production. Technological Advances and Tasks for Cellulosic Ethanol Production: Strategies to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Genetic Engineering of Ethanologenic Microorganisms to Improve Fuel Ethanol Production, Consolidated Bioprocessing for Cellulosic Bioethanol Production and Toward Industrialization of Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery.
According to the latest market study released by Technavio, the global cellulosic ethanol market is expected to reach USD 18.01 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of more than 45%.
The key players of the market are Abengoa Bioenergy, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Beta Renewables, Mascoma, Novozymes, POET-DSM, British Petroleum, Inbicon GranBio, and INEOS Bio. These companies are adopting expansion as one of the key strategies to penetrate into the global market. For instance, GranBio has established a cellulosic ethanol demonstration facility at Brazil with a production capacity of 21.6 Million Gallon per year (MGY).
The production and collection of biogas from a biological process was documented for the first time in United Kingdom in 1895. Biogas installations, processing agricultural substrates, are some of the most important applications of anaerobic digestion today. In Asia alone, millions of family owned, small scale digesters are in operation in countries like China, India, Nepal and Vietnam, producing biogas for cooking and lighting. Thousands of agricultural biogas plants are in operation in Europe and North America, many of them using the newest technologies within this area, and their number is continuously increasing. In Germany alone, more than 3.700 agricultural biogas plants were in operation in 2007.
Biomass categories used in biogas production: Animal manure and slurry, Agricultural residues and by-products, Digestible organic wastes from food and agro industries (vegetable and animal origin), Organic fraction of municipal waste and from catering (vegetable and animal origin), Dedicated energy crops (e.g. maize, miscanthus, sorghum, clover) and Sewage sludge.
The world markets for biogas increased considerably during the last years and many countries developed modern biogas technologies and competitive national biogas markets throughout decades of intensive RD&D complemented by substantial governmental and public support. The European biogas sector counts thousands of biogas installations, and countries like Germany, Austria, Denmark and Sweden are among the technical forerunners, with the largest number of modern biogas plants. In China, it is estimated that up to 18 million rural household biogas digesters were operating in 2006, and the total Chinese biogas potential is estimated to be of 145 billion cubic meters while in India approximately 5 million small-scale biogas plants are currently in operation. Other countries like Nepal and Vietnam have also considerable numbers of very small scale, family owned biogas installations. The European Biomass Association (AEBIOM) estimates that the European production of biomass based energy can be increased from the 72 million tones (Mtoe) in 2004 to 220 Mtoe in 2020. The largest potential lies in biomass originating from agriculture, where biogas is an important player. According to AEBIOM, up to 20 to 40 million hectares (Mha) of land can be used for energy production in the European Union alone, without affecting the European food supply.
Biological H2 production can make a substantial contribution to future renewable energy demand, e.g. for generating useful energy from biomass residues and sunlight. Hydrogen (H2) has been considered as a sustainable energy carrier as it is clean, efficient and renewable. Currently, H2 is being produced mainly from fossil fuels, biomass, and water. H2 production through biological routes is considered as one of the opportunistic and sustainable ways to meet the future energy demand and to prevent fossil fuel-based environmental impacts. biological H2 can be produced through two main mechanisms: photosynthesis and dark fermentation. Photosynthesis is a light-dependent process, while dark fermentation (anaerobic) is a light-independent catabolic process.
The hydrogen generation market is expected to grow, by value, from an estimated USD 115.25 Billion in 2017 to USD 154.74 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 6.07%. The global market is set to witness growth due to government regulations for desulfurization of petroleum products and rising demand for hydrogen as a transportation fuel.
Some of the major players operating in the global hydrogen market are The Linde Group, Air Liquide S.A., Praxair, Inc., Messer Group GmbH, Airgas, Inc., Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Iwatani Corporation, Hydrogenics Corporation, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Showa Denko K.K.
Biomass is any material of organic origin such as wood (directly from forest or by-products of the forest-based industry), agricultural crops, agricultural by-products (eg: straw) and residues (eg: manure), agro-industrial by-products, or municipal biowaste that can be used to produce energy. Bioenergy fuels, heat, and power derived from biomass sources is an evolving market that produces and supplies renewable alternatives to fossil fuel sources. Bioenergy includes: Conventional ethanol, Cellulosic ethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, Renewable hydrocarbon biofuels, Renewable natural gas (RNG), Biopower, Bioproducts and co-products. In 2015, U.S. bioenergy production surpassed 1,700 trillion British thermal units (Btu) from ethanol, biodiesel, renewable hydrocarbons, and biopower. In European Union, Final energy consumption of bioenergy in 2013 was 105 Mtoe, double that of 2000. Bioenergy is 60% of EU renewable energy consumption today.
Production of chemicals from biomass offers a promising opportunity to reduce dependence on imported oil, as well as to improve the overall economics and sustainability of an integrated biorefinery. Bioproducts are value-added chemicals or materials derived from renewable sources such as commodity sugars, lignocellulosic biomass, or algae. The biomass-derived products are include 1,4-butanediol, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl lactate, fatty alcohols, furfural, glycerin, isoprene, lactic acid, 1,3- propanediol, propylene glycol, succinic acid, and para-xylene. Emerging products including adipic acid, acrylic acid, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid.
Recent analysis projects the market share of bio-based chemicals in the global chemical industry will increase from 2% in 2008 to 22% in 2025, and the market potential for bio-based chemicals will be $19.7 billion in 2016.
Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysts to Make Fuels and Chemicals. Biochemical conversion entails breaking down biomass to make the carbohydrates available for processing into sugars, which can then be converted into biofuels and bioproducts through the use of microorganisms and catalysts. Key challenges for biochemical conversion include the considerable cost and difficulty involved in breaking down the tough, complex structures of the cell walls in cellulosic biomass. Biological conversion techniques, including anaerobic digestion for biogas production and fermentation for alcohol.
Thermochemical conversion of biomass can produce a variety of versatile liquid fuel products, including ethanol, methanol, diesel, ethers for reformulated gasoline, and even a form of refinable crude. Thermal conversion process: Combustion, Pyrolysis and Gasification.
Biomass is used to produce electricity (biopower), heat (biothermal), fuels (biofuel), and CHP. Biomass feedstock includes bioenergy crops, forest products, agricultural residues, and animal manure Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from the biomass feedstock and accounts for 14% of world primary energy supply.
Global biomass supply in 2030 is estimated to range from 97 exajoule (EJ) to 147 EJ per year. Nearly 40% of this total would come from agricultural residues and waste (37-66 EJ). The remaining supply potential is shared between energy crops (33-39 EJ) and forest products, including forest residues (24-43 EJ). The largest supply potential exists in Asia and Europe (including Russia) (43-77 EJ). Global cumulative installed capacity for biopower increased from 49.4 gigawatts (GW) in 2006 to 111.3GW in 2016. A major portion of this increased capacity employed several biomass conversion technologies, while a small portion used landfill gas or biomass gasification complemented by biogas conversion technology. The rise in global installed capacity during this period can be attributed to the installations in China and Brazil. Brazil used almost entirely solid-biomass conversion, with negligible biogas capacity addition. China, on the other hand, installed biomass and biogas plants. Steady growth of the cumulative capacity is expected to continue, to reach 165.2GW by the end of 2025, with more than 84% of the capacity using solid-biomass conversion technology.
Europe is the largest biopower market in the world. It accounts for 37.4% share of the global cumulative biopower installed capacity. Asia-Pacific is the second-largest region with a share of 30.25% by 2016. It is followed by North America (NA), South and Central America (SCA), and Middle East and Africa (MEA). Europe and Asia-Pacific regions were the major markets for biopower in 2016. In the same year, Europe invested $9,332m with average capital expenditure (capex) of $4,350 per kilowatt (kW), followed by Asia-Pacific with $8,833m and capex of $2,677 in biopower technology. The key European countries contributing to biopower market included the UK, France, Germany and, Italy, whereas in Asia-Pacific countries such as China, India, Japan, and Thailand were the major investors.
A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. Biorefinery refers to the conversion of biomass feedstock into a host of valuable chemicals and energy with minimal waste and emissions. A biorefinery is a conceptual model for future biofuel production where both fuels and high-value co-product materials are produced. There are many technical and non-technical gaps and barriers related to the implementation and commercialization of the biorefinery.
Current technical barriers with the use of energy crops are associated with the cost of production and difficulties in harvesting and storing the material grown, especially for annual or other crops that have to be harvested within a narrow time period in the autumn. Transportation costs are of prime importance when calculating the overall costs of biomass; hence, local or regional production of biomass is most favorable. Other technical problems associated with growing energy crops include provision of nutrients and control of pests and disease.
The major non-technical barriers are restrictions or prior claims on use of land (food, energy, amenity use, housing, commerce, industry, leisure or designations as areas of natural beauty, special scientific interest, etc.), as well as the environmental and ecological effects of large areas of monoculture.
The biorefinery economy is a vision for a future in which biorenewables replace fossil fuels. The transition to a biorefinery economy would require a huge investment in new infrastructure to produce, store and deliver biorefinery products to end users.
Butanol is a four-carbon primary alcohol with energy density closer to gasoline. It is less volatile, less hygroscopic, and less corrosive than ethanol which makes it more desirable than the latter in terms of its better suitability to be used in current petrol engines. The current applications of butanol are mainly in the manufacture of lacquers and enamels. It is also a valuable industrial solvent used in the manufacture of several compounds including vitamins, antibiotics, and hormones. The global bio-butanol market is expected to reach USD 17.78 billion by 2022, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Bio-Butanol Market is expected to fulfil about 20% of the global domestic gas and diesel requirement. Big players like Exonnmobil, DuPont and BP are investing in a range of biofuel technologies, with BP making investments in bio-butanol production. Moreover, there are a large number of biofuel ventures banking on bio-butanol as an attractive ethanol alternative. North America and Europe are the two major markets for biofuels. Brazil has the largest production of bio-butanol because of the enormous amount of raw material - bagasse. India, China, Brazil, Japan have great potential in adopting this alternative.
US National Nanotechnology Initiative defines nanotechnology as: The science, engineering, and technology related to the understanding and control of matter at the length scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers. However, nanotechnology is not merely working with matter at the nanoscale, but also research and development of materials, devices, and systems that have novel properties and functions due to their nanoscale dimensions or components.
A joint report by the British Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering similarly defined nanotechnology as “the design, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Through Nanotechnology:
BCC Research estimates the total energy-related market for nanotechnologies at nearly $8.8 billion in 2012 and $15 billion in 2017, a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% through 2017.
Global new investment in renewables excluding large hydro fell by 23% to $241.6 billion, the lowest total since 2013, but there was record installation of renewable power capacity worldwide in 2016. Wind, solar, biomass and waste-to-energy, geothermal, small hydro and marine sources between them added 138.5GW, up from 127.5GW in the previous year.
In 2016, the advance of renewable energy slowed in one respect, and speeded up in another. Investment in renewables excluding large hydro fell by 23% to $241.6 billion, but the amount of new capacity installed increased from 127.5GW in 2015 to a record 138.5GW in 2016. Together, the new renewable sources of wind, solar, biomass and waste, geothermal, small hydro and marine accounted for 55.3% of all the gigawatts of new power generation added worldwide last year. More solar gigawatts were added (75GW) than of any other technology for the first time. A major reason why installations increased even though dollars invested fell was a sharp reduction in capital costs for solar photovoltaics, onshore and offshore wind. On a less positive note, there were clear signs as 2016 went on of slowing activity in two key markets, China and Japan.
Computational science is particularly important for the simulation of various energy-related processes, ranging from classical energy processes as combustion and subsurface oil-reservoir flows to more modern processes as wind-farm aerodynamics, photovoltaics. Computational research needs and opportunities in alternative and renewable energy, particularly as they apply to developing new sources of electricity generation and transportation fuels. The development, design, deployment, use, and characterization of advanced materials and technology components can benefit enormously from computationally based research in order to enhance the adoption of renewable and alternative resources by accelerating development, reducing technology risks, and generally building confidence.
Energy analysis capabilities and expertise to prepare credible, objective analyses that inform policy and investment decisions as renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies move from innovation through integration.
Energy storage industry has continued to evolve and adapt to changing energy requirements and advances in technology. Energy storage systems provide a wide array of technological approaches to managing our power supply in order to create a more resilient energy infrastructure and bring cost savings to utilities and consumers.
Energy storage systems divided them into six main categories:
Major energy supply pathways today include oil, natural gas, and coal fossil fuel sources, nuclear energy, and renewable energy converted to energy carriers mostly as liquids, electricity and/or heat, and then used in households, for transport, and by industry. In future, larger contributions can be expected from purpose-grown energy crops and waste streams, wind, geothermal, small hydro and solar energy, as well as natural gas and, at least in some places, nuclear power. Electricity, and perhaps hydrogen, are expected to play increasing roles in the overall energy system, and perhaps with a trend away from centralized energy systems to decentralized and distributed generation. Increased use of electricity is key to greater energy access and more energy for sustainable development across the world, and to increasing energy efficiency throughout the energy supply-chain. In order to improve current energy systems, and their capacity to meet rapidly changing needs, it is essential to boost development and investment in advanced energy-sector technologies and integrated systems, from the energy source, through conversion and transmission, to distribution and end-use. The lag time between research and large-scale commercial deployment is long, and funding for energy RD&D continues to decline worldwide.
Energy Systems Integration (ESI) is the process of coordinating the operation and planning of energy systems across multiple pathways and/or geographical scales to deliver reliable, costeffective energy services with minimal impact on the environment.
Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to work more efficiently on their own and with each other. ESI brings together the wide range of energy carriers—electricity, thermal sources, and fuels—with other infrastructures, such as water, transportation, and data networks. It's a holistic view of all energy systems we use today.
The value of ESI is in coordinating how energy systems produce and deliver energy in all forms to reach reliable, economic, and or environmental goals at appropriate scales. Analysis and design of integrated energy systems can inform policymakers and industry on the best strategies to accomplish these goals.
ESI is an important concept to make the energy system more flexible, enable the efficient integration of renewable energy and to reduce carbon emissions. ESI solutions can range from the very simple to the very complex, are system specific, and impact different actors in distinct ways. They can require expertise from a single discipline or from a multitude of disciplines. It is important to understand the ESI value proposition and to communicate it in order to educate energy professionals and foster knowledge creation and transfer.
The transmission industry with a lot of work ahead as it continues to recreate the grid and make it more renewable energy-ready. On the macro level, transmission lines are being developed worldwide to move green power long distances from remote regions to power-hungry population centers. On the more micro level, new energy storage systems are helping grid operators fine-tune their management of wind and solar variability. Energy storage is a natural partner to renewable energy since it evens the peaks and valleys created by wind and solar production on the grid. The rise of energy storage comes with an accompanying focus on microgrids, self-contained entities that can island from the main grid during power outages or can feed the grid special services when connected. Energy storage often is a key element of a microgrid, along with solar energy or combined heat and power.
“The door is open; storage is now welcome,” said Chris Shelton, President, AES Energy Storage, which has 174 MW of utility-scale storage projects operating in Chile and the United States. The 64-MW Laurel Mountain Wind Farm in West Virginia includes battery storage supplied by AES Energy Storage. Credit: AES Energy Storage.
Storage takes several forms: batteries, thermal, pumped storage, ocean wave, fly wheel, compressed air, fuel cell. Batteries continue to drop in price and rise in use. Navigant Research foresees the grid-scale battery energy storage market reaching $7.6 billion in 2017 and $29.8 billion by 2022.
The renewables industry for years has discussed the value of pairing solar and energy storage. Lux Research estimates this market will grow to $2.8 billion from 2013 to 2018. Japan will lead the way with 381 MW of storage paired with solar, Lux says, as it grapples with high electricity prices and nuclear power concerns. In Europe, Germany will follow developing about 94 MW of solar-linked storage during the same period, says Lux. The U.S. comes third in the Lux forecast, with about 75 MW.
Heat from the earth can be used as an energy source in many ways, from large and complex power stations to small and relatively simple pumping systems. This heat energy, known as geothermal energy. Heat has been radiating from the center of the Earth for some 4.5 billion years. At 6437.4 km (4,000 miles) deep, the center of the Earth hovers around the same temperatures as the sun's surface, 9932°F (5,500°C) (Figure 1). Scientists estimate that 42 million megawatts (MW) of power flow from the Earth’s interior, primarily by conduction Geothermal energy is a renewable resource. One of its biggest advantages is that it is constantly available. The constant flow of heat from the Earth ensures an inexhaustible and essentially limitless supply of energy for billions of years to come.
The first geothermally generated electricity was produced in Larderello, Italy, in 1904.
Geothermal energy is generated in over 20 countries. The United States is the world’s largest producer, and the largest geothermal development in the world is The Geysers north of San Francisco in California. In Iceland, many of the buildings and even swimming pools are heated with geothermal hot water. Iceland has at least 25 active volcanoes and many hot springs and geysers.
There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam, the oldest geothermal technology, takes steam out of fractures in the ground and uses it to directly drive a turbine. Flash plants pull deep, high-pressure hot water into cooler, low-pressure water. The steam that results from this process is used to drive the turbine. In binary plants, the hot water is passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This causes the secondary fluid to turn to vapor, which then drives a turbine. Most geothermal power plants in the future will be binary plants.
Philippines is home to three of the 10 biggest geothermal power plant installations in the world, followed by the US and Indonesia with two each, and Italy, Mexico and Iceland with one each.
As of 2015, renewable energy provided an estimated 19.3%i of global final energy consumption. Of this total share, traditional biomass, used primarily for cooking and heating in remote and rural areas of developing countries, accounted for about 9.1%, and modern renewables (not including traditional biomass) increased their share relative to 2014 to approximately 10.2%. In 2015, hydropower accounted for an estimated 3.6% of total final energy consumption, other renewable power sources comprised 1.6%, renewable heat energy accounted for approximately 4.2%, and transport biofuels provided about 0.8%.
The overall share of renewable energy in total final energy consumption has increased only modestly in recent history, despite tremendous growth in the renewable energy sector, particularly for solar PV and wind power. A primary reason for this is the persistently strong growth in overall energy demand, which counteracts the strong forward momentum for modern renewable energy technologies. In addition, the use of traditional biomass for heat, which makes up nearly half of all renewable energy use, has increased, but at a rate that has not kept up with growth in total demand.
Growth rates of renewable energy capacity vary substantially across regions and nations, with most new capacity being installed in developing countries, and primarily in China. China has been the single largest developer of renewable power and heat for the past eight years. In 2016, an ever-growing number of developing countries continued to expand their renewable energy capacities, and some are rapidly becoming important markets. Emerging economies are quickly transforming their energy industries by benefiting from lower-cost, more efficient renewable technologies and more reliable resource forecasting, making countries such as Argentina, Chile, China, India and Mexico attractive markets for investment.
Hydrogen and fuel cells are now being deployed commercially for mainstream applications. Hydrogen has fallen in and out of favour since the oil shocks of the 1970s, but remains a marginal energy system option. However, mainstream products are now emerging: Honda, Toyota and Hyundai have launched the first mass-produced hydrogen vehicles, and fuel cells now heat 180,000 Japanese homes. Early-mover companies, notably in Japan, are beginning to see lucrative export opportunities.
Hydrogen can play a major role alongside electricity in the low-carbon economy. Hydrogen and fuel cells are not synonymous; they can be deployed in combination or separately.
Cumulatively, over 22.2 million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles be sold or leased worldwide by 2032. These sales will generate collective revenues upwards of $1.1 trillion for the auto industry by 2032. Information Trends projects that by 2050, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become the fastest growing segment of the global automobile market. With only three major competitors in the market, Toyota generated over 80 percent in sales in 2016. Hyundai had second highest sales, followed by Honda. The market will become more competitive as Mercedes-Benz rollouts out a fuel cell vehicle in the second half of 2017, followed by several other automakers over the next few years.
Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydroelectric power or hydropower.
The most common type of hydroelectric power plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydroelectric power doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydroelectric power plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.
Another type of hydroelectric power plant - called a pumped storage plant - can even store power. The power is sent from a power grid into the electric generators. The generators then spin the turbines backward, which causes the turbines to pump water from a river or lower reservoir to an upper reservoir, where the power is stored. To use the power, the water is released from the upper reservoir back down into the river or lower reservoir. This spins the turbines forward, activating the generators to produce electricity.
A small or micro-hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home, farm, or ranch.
In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower. In 1882, the world’s first hydroelectric power plant began operating in the United States in Appleton, Wisconsin.
Hydroelectric power provides almost one-fifth of the world's electricity. China, Canada, Brazil, the United States, and Russia were the five largest producers of hydropower in 2004. One of the world's largest hydro plants is at Three Gorges on China's Yangtze River. The dam is 1.4 miles (2.3 kilometers) wide and 607 feet (185 meters) high. The biggest hydro plant in the United States is located at the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in northern Washington. More than 70 percent of the electricity made in Washington State is produced by hydroelectric facilities.
As per International Energy Agency (IEA), hydroelectric accounted for over 80% of the total renewable energy mix. North America and Europe have introduced plans to upgrade, renovate, and modernize the existing stations to ensure more efficient operations. For instance, in March 2015, Latvenergo announced to invest USD 222.26 million towards reconstruction of Riga, Plavinas and Kegums hydroelectric power stations in Latvia by 2022.
Life-cycle assessment, or LCA, is an analytical tool used to assess the end-to-end environmental impact of a product or process. The increasing demand for sustainable renewable energy sources to reduce the pollution and dependency on conventional energy resources creates a path to assess the various energy sources for their sustainability. One renewable energy source might be very attractive for heat production and not so attractive for electricity and transport purposes. The commercial-scale production of these energy sources requires careful consideration of several issues that can be broadly categorized as raw material production, technology, by-products, etc. The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used effectively in evaluating various renewable energy sources for their sustainability and can help policy makers choose the best energy source for specific purpose.
Marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies convert the energy of waves, tides, and river and ocean currents into electricity. Wave and tidal power technologies represent a huge opportunity to create reliable, clean energy.
Marine energy is generated by the kinetic energy that can be harnessed from oceans as well as the salinity and temperature differences within the seas. Marine energy is often also referred to as ocean or hydrokinetic energy. It encompasses various forms of ocean energy, including tidal power which derives energy from moving masses of water and wave power which derives power from surface waves. According to Ocean Energy Systems (OES), the international technology collaboration initiative on ocean energy under the International Energy Agency (IEA), total worldwide installed ocean power was about 530 MW in 2012, of which 517 MW from tidal range power plants. Technologies to exploit tidal range power are today the only ones to have reached commercialization stages in the ocean energy group although they also involve high investment costs and considerable environmental impacts. Only four tidal range power plants exist in the world: two major plants, one in South Korea (254 MW) and one in France (240 MW), and two smaller plants, one in Canada (20 MW) and one in China (3.9 MW). This technology could also undergo further developments as several projects are under development in the UK (Severn tidal) and especially in South Korea. Except for the tidal range technology, no technology is widely deployed as most of them are still at an early stage of development. Theoretically, marine and hydrokinetics can deliver over 6,000 megawatts of potential energy in the United States. Among marine energy, energy derived from waves has the largest potential in the country, reaching up to 2,640 megawatts. Globally wave energy has a resource potential of up to 80,000 terawatt hours.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a technology for generating renewable energy that uses the temperature differential between the deep cold and relatively warmer surface waters of the ocean to generate baseload electricity.
Advanced building technologies reduce energy use; improve indoor and outdoor environmental quality; lower our fuel bills; improve living and work environments; improve economic competitiveness by reducing energy imports and exporting new technology; and increase international leadership in building technologies.
Major Research Areas: Solar Heating, Electrochromic Window Testing, Advanced Cooling and Dehumidification, Passive Solar, Design and Analysis Tools, Home Energy Rating Systems and Building-Integrated Photovoltaics.
The U.S. spends $200 billion annually to heat, cool, light and operate its 95 million homes and 4.5 million commercial buildings. That accounts for more than 60 percent of the electricity consumed in the U.S. The nation could reduce its energy use by 30 to 70 percent by simply incorporating advanced energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies into its buildings.
Energy can be harnessed directly from the sun, even in cloudy weather. Solar energy is used worldwide and is increasingly popular for generating electricity or heating and desalinating water. Solar power is generated in two main ways:
Photovoltaics (PV), also called solar cells, are electronic devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity. The modern solar cell is likely an image most people would recognise – they are in the panels installed on houses and in calculators. They were invented in 1954 at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the United States. Today, PV is one of the fastest-growing renewable energy technologies, and is ready to play a major role in the future global electricity generation mix.
Concentrated solar power (CSP), uses mirrors to concentrate solar rays. These rays heat fluid, which creates steam to drive a turbine and generate electricity. CSP is used to generate electricity in large-scale power plants.
The global solar energy industry is expected to reach $422 billion by 2022 from $86 billion in 2015, growing at a CAGR of 24.2% from 2016 to 2022. Solar energy is the radiant energy emitted from the sun, which is harnessed by using various technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaic cells, and others. It is an efficient form of unconventional energy and a convenient renewable solution toward growing greenhouse emissions and global warming.
Solar energy does not produce air or water pollution or greenhouse gases. Solar energy can have a positive, indirect effect on the environment when using solar energy replaces or reduces the use of other energy sources that have larger effects on the environment. However, some toxic materials and chemicals are used to make the photovoltaic (PV) cells that convert sunlight into electricity. Some solar thermal systems use potentially hazardous fluids to transfer heat. Leaks of these materials could be harmful to the environment. In addition, large solar thermal power plants can harm desert ecosystems if not properly managed. Birds and insects can be killed if they fly into a concentrated beam of sunlight, such as that created by a "solar power tower." Some solar thermal systems use potentially hazardous fluids (to transfer heat) that require proper handling and disposal. Concentrating solar systems may require water for regular cleaning of the concentrators and receivers and for cooling the turbine-generator. Using water from underground wells may affect the ecosystem in some arid locations.
Photovoltaic (PV) technology uses direct sunlight to produce electricity. Today’s solar PV panels are being installed on vehicles, ATMs, remote equipment stations, spacecrafts and on building envelope components. They are safe, reliable, incur less operating costs, and are easy to install. The growing concerns about climate change and alternative sources of energy have led to the significant growth of the photovoltaic market.
The global photovoltaic market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 18.30% between 2014 and 2020 and the overall market is estimated to be worth $89.52 billion in 2013 to $345.59 billion by 2020 In terms of application, the utility application accounted for the largest market size in 2013 at 57%. The utility application is expected to hold the major market share and is also likely to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. The main reason behind this would be the growing usage of photovoltaics in power plants, military applications, and other utility applications such as space & defence, industrial projects, and so on.
The major players in global photovoltaics market are Kaneka Corporation (Japan), Kyocera Corporation (Japan), Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan), Panasonic Corporation (Japan), Sharp Corporation (Japan), JA solar Co. Ltd (China), Jinko Solar (China), ReneSola Co. Ltd (China), Suntech Power Holdings Co. Ltd (China), Trina Solar (China), Yingli Green (China), and Canadian Solar (Canada) among others.
Solar thermal power (electricity) generation systems collect and concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperature heat needed to generate electricity. All solar thermal power systems have solar energy collectors with two main components: reflectors (mirrors) that capture and focus sunlight onto a receiver. In most types of systems, a heat-transfer fluid is heated and circulated in the receiver and used to produce steam. The steam is converted into mechanical energy in a turbine, which powers a generator to produce electricity. Solar thermal power systems have tracking systems that keep sunlight focused onto the receiver throughout the day as the sun changes position in the sky.
A solar thermal collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight. A collector is a device for capturing solar radiation. Solar radiation is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared (long) to the ultraviolet (short) wavelengths. The quantity of solar energy striking the Earth's surface (solar constant) averages about 1,000 watts per square meter under clear skies, depending upon weather conditions, location and orientation. The global solar thermal collector market is expected to reach USD 41.96 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc.
The global stock of electric vehicles (EVs) reached 1 million in 2015 and exceeded 2 million by the end of 2016. Yet faster growth is needed for EVs to fulfil their role in the global energy transition, both through lowering vehicle emissions and boosting renewable energy use. Increasing reliance on EV batteries and charging stations would support higher shares of solar and wind power, the key variable renewable energy (VRE) sources expected to be prominent in future power grids.
EV deployment depends on four concurrent strategies to ensure maximum benefits: electrification of vehicles, provision of sufficient charging equipment, decarbonisation of power generation and EV integration with the grid.
Waste to energy or energy from waste is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste. Global Waste To Energy Market was valued at $32,567 million in 2016, and is expected to reach $54,179 million by 2023, registering a CAGR of 7.6% from 2017 to 2023. Waste to energy is the process of energy generation from the primary treatment of waste. Waste to energy produce electricity or heat directly by combustion. It also produces combustible fuel commodities such as methanol, methane, synthetic fuels or ethanol. The global waste to energy market is segmented based on technology, and geography. Based on technology, it is divided into thermal and biological. Thermal segment is further classified into incineration, pyrolysis and gasification.
Wave energy is produced when electricity generators are placed on the surface of the ocean. The energy provided is most often used in desalination plants, power plants and water pumps. Energy output is determined by wave height, wave speed, wavelength, and water density. To date there are only a handful of experimental wave generator plants in operation around the world.
While wave technologies capture energy from individual waves, tidal technologies tap into the predictable and powerful ocean tides, while other hydrokinetic technologies can capture the energy in natural river flows. Tidal barrages, undersea tidal turbines and other technologies are currently under development, particularly in areas with high tidal ranges the difference in water levels between low and high tide which are ideal for this type of marine hydropower.
The Global Wave and Tidal Energy Market is poised to grow at a CAGR of around 7.7% over the next decade to reach approximately $1781.52 million by 2025.
The U.S. wave and tidal energy market will witness attractive growth prospects. The growth attributed to the increasing investment in exploration of natural resources. In 2013, Energy Department announced USD16 million for 17 projects to efficiently capture tidal and wave energy. Australia wave and tidal energy market will witness significant growth subject to growing investments towards replacing fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. Australia Climate Change Authority recently proposed a target to meet 65% of total electricity through emission-free source by 2030. For Europe, UK wave and tidal energy market holds the dominant position in the across the region with more than 50% share. In 2016, government decided to phase out most polluting source of electricity and replace it with alternative sources to reduce carbon footprint. The country is targeting to close all the last power station by end of 2025. In 2003, EU launched an Intelligent Energy Europe programme for funding the initiatives for ocean energy to eliminate the barricades of commercialization and deployment of this technology. China wave and tidal energy market anticipated to experience considerable growth opportunities subject to their extensive action plans to bolster research activities pertaining marine renewable energy technologies. In January 2017, the country planned to invest USD 440 million on tidal and geothermal energy sources. Japan wave and tidal energy market will witness substantial growth subject to stringent target set by country to reduce greenhouse gas emission level to 26 per cent below 2013 levels by 2030.
The major players operating in wave and tidal energy market are Pelamis Wave Power. (UK), Tenax Energy (Australia), Atlantis Resources Ltd (UK), Aquamarine Power Ltd. (UK), Carnegie Wave Energy Limited (Australia), Ocean Power Technologies Inc., (U.S.), Marine Current Turbines Ltd, (U.K), Ocean Renewable Power CO Llc (U.S.) and Yam Pro Energy (Israel).
Wind power is one of the fastest-growing renewable energy technologies. Usage is on the rise worldwide, in part because costs are falling. Global installed wind-generation capacity onshore and offshore has increased by a factor of almost 50 in the past two decades, jumping from 7.5 gigawatts (GW) in 1997 to some 487 GW by 2016, according to figures from the Renewable Energy Network for the 21st Century (REN21). Production of wind electricity doubled between 2009 and 2013. Many parts of the world have strong wind speeds, but the best locations for generating wind power are sometimes remote ones. Offshore wind power offers tremendous potential.
Wind turbines first emerged more than a century ago. Following the invention of the electric generator in the 1830s, engineers started attempting to harness wind energy to produce electricity. Wind power generation took place in the United Kingdom and the United States in 1887 and 1888, but modern wind power is considered to have been first developed in Denmark, where horizontal-axis wind turbines were built in 1891 and a 22.8-metre wind turbine began operation in 1897.
Wind is used to produce electricity using the kinetic energy created by air in motion. This is transformed into electrical energy using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems. Wind first hits a turbine’s blades, causing them to rotate and turn the turbine connected to them. That changes the kinetic energy to rotational energy, by moving a shaft which is connected to a generator, and thereby producing electrical energy through electromagnetism.
The amount of power that can be harvested from wind depends on the size of the turbine and the length of its blades. The output is proportional to the dimensions of the rotor and to the cube of the wind speed. Theoretically, when wind speed doubles, wind power potential increases by a factor of eight.
Wind-turbine capacity has increased over time. In 1985, typical turbines had a rated capacity of 0.05 megawatts (MW) and a rotor diameter of 15 metres. Today’s new wind power projects have turbine capacities of about 2 MW onshore and 3–5 MW offshore.
Commercially available wind turbines have reached 8 MW capacity, with rotor diameters of up to 164 metres. The average capacity of wind turbines increased from 1.6 MW in 2009 to 2 MW in 2014.
Efficient collection and storage of renewable forms of energy like solar radiation or wind requires the development of advanced functional materials. Energy efficient and low cost materials are the two main drivers in Renewable Energy Research. Materials are fundamental to economic, social and industrial development. They form the basis for the functionality of the built environment, products and technologies that are vital to modern society.